Überblick:About the Book Italy's history is discussed in numerous texts. The ancient Greeks Etruscans and Celts all established settlements in Italy but the Italic tribe called the Latins formed the city of Rome as a Kingdom which eventually became a Republic that united all of Italy by the third century BC. The Roman Empire eventually emerged as the dominant power of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea due to the military victories of generals such as Scipio Aemilius Paullus Scipio Aemilianus Gaius Marius Lucius Sulla Pompey and Julius Caesar. However the Western Roman Empire collapsed due to barbarian invasions in 476 when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus. Subsequently the Italian peninsula was conquered by the Goths the Byzantines and the Lombards until Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 in Rome. The crusades launched by Pope Urban II and his successors boosted economic activity causing the European economy to shift from agriculture to trade which resulted in the banking industry and the first universities to appear in the west. During the Renaissance Italy was at the forefront of philosophy art science and exploration producing outstanding figures such as Leonardo Dante Giotto Marco Polo Machiavelli Michelangelo Columbus Amerigo Vespucci and Galileo. After the Holy League fended off Ottoman expansion parts of Italy came under Napoleonic and Hapsburg control. After the Congress of Vienna (1815) the Risorgimento movement united Italy and liberated it from foreign control by 1870. Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Garibaldi King Victor Emmanuel II and Prime Minister Camillo Cavour came to be known as the four fathers of the fatherland. However Italy's contribution to the Allied effort in World War 1 ironically assisted the rise of fascism and the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini which ultimately led to an alliance with Germany and Japan in World War 2 and the Italian Civil War. About us Leopold Classic Library has the goal of making available to readers the classic books that have been out of print for decades. While these books may have occasional imperfections we consider that only hand checking of every page ensures readable content without poor picture quality blurred or missing text etc. That's why we: republish only hand checked books; that are high quality; enabling readers to see classic books in original formats; that are unlikely to have missing or blurred pages. You can search "Leopold Classic Library" in categories of your interest to find other books in our extensive collection. Happy reading!